Nation Branding Reading List for Students and Researchers

This nation branding reading list for students and researchers has been compiled by Oliver Zöllner, professor at Stuttgart Media University in southwest Germany. The list includes essential reading for nation branding students and helps nation branding researchers stay up to date on latest books, articles and other publications dedicated to the fascinating field of nation branding.

Contents

  • Part I: Nation branding introduction: overviews, context;
  • Part II: Nation branding theory development: further reading;
  • Part III: Nation branding case studies;
  • Part IV: Helpful Internet resources.

Nation Branding Introduction: Overviews, Context

Anholt, Simon (2007): Competitive identity: The new brand management for nations, cities and regions. Basingstoke, New York.

Anholt, Simon (2010): Places: Identity, images and reputation. Basingstoke, New York.

Aronczyk, Melissa (2013): Branding the nation: The global business of national identity. Oxford, New York.

Bloomfield, Steve (ed.) (2016): How to make a nation: A Monocle guide. Berlin.

Dinnie, Keith (2016): Nation branding: Concepts, issues, practice. 2nd ed. London, New York.

Govers, Robert / Go, Frank M. (2009): Place Branding: Glocal, virtual and physical identities, constructed, imagined and experienced. Basingstoke, New York.

Moilanen, Teemu / Rainisto, Seppo (2009): How to brand nations, cities and destinations: A planning book for place branding. Basingstoke, New York.

Olins, Wally (2002): Branding the nation – the historical context. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 241-248.

Olins, Wally (2005): Making a national brand. In: Jan Melissen (ed.): The new public diplomacy: Soft power in international relations. Basingstoke, New York, 169-179.


Nation Branding Theory Development: Further Reading

Anholt, Simon (2006): Public diplomacy and place branding: Where’s the link? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, 271-275.

Anholt, Simon (2008): Place branding: Is it marketing, or isn’t it? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4, 1-6.

Anholt, Simon (2011): Beyond the nation brand: The role of image and identity in international relations. In: Journal of Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, No. 1, 6-12.

Bahrke, Johannes (2010): Auslandsrundfunk als strategisches Mittel europäischer Public Diplomacy im Nahen Osten. In: Tenscher, Jens / Viehrig, Henrike (eds.): Politische Kommunikation in internationalen Beziehungen. Berlin, Münster, 191-214.

Cowan, Geoffrey / Arsenault, Amelia (2008): Moving from monologue to dialogue to collaboration: The three layers of public diplomacy. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, No. 1, 10-30.

Curtin, Patricia A. / Gaither, T. Kenn (2007): International public relations: Negotiating culture, identity, and power. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi.

Edwards, Lee / Ramamurthy, Anandi (2017): (In)Credible India? A critical analysis of India’s nation branding. In: Communication, Culture & Critique, Vol. 10, No. 2, 322-341.

Fan, Ying (2006): Branding the nation: What is being branded? In: Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 12, No. 1, 5-14.

Gilboa, Eytan (2000): Mass communication and diplomacy: A theoretical framework. In: Communication Theory, Vol. 10, No. 3, 275-309.

Gilboa, Eytan (2002): Global communication and foreign policy. In: Journal of Communication, Vol. 52, No. 4, 31-748.

Gregory, Bruce (2008): Public diplomacy: Sunrise of an academic field. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, 274-290.

Hanna, Sonya / Rowley, Jennifer (2008): An analysis of terminolgy use in place branding. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4, 61-75.

Horisberger, Marc (2002): Entstehung und Gestaltung von Nationenimages. Eine theoretische und empirische Analyse staatlicher Imagepflege im Ausland aus kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Perspektive. Diss., Univ. Freiburg (Schweiz).

Kaneva, Nadia (2011): Nation branding: Toward an agenda for critical research. In: International Journal of Communication, Vol. 5, 117-141. Link

Kemming, Jan Dirk / Humborg, Christian (2010): Democracy and nation brand(ing): Friends or foes? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 6, 183-197.

Kotler, Philip / Gertner, David (2002): Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 249-261.

Kunczik, Michael (1989): Public Relations für Staaten. Die Imagepflege von Nationen als Aspekt der internationalen Kommunikation: Zum Forschungsstand. In: Max Kaase/Winfried Schulz (Hrsg.): Massenkommunikation. Theorien, Methoden, Befunde. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (= Sonderheft 30 der Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie), 165-184.

Kunczik, Michael (1990): Die manipulierte Meinung. Nationale Image-Politik und internationale Public Relations. Köln.

Kunczik, Michael (2009): Transnational public relations by foreign governments. In: Krishnamurthy Sriramesh / Dejan Verčič (eds.): The global public relations handbook: Theory, research, and practice. Rev. ed. New York, London, 769-794.

Leonard, Mark [with Catherine Stead and Conrad Smewing] (2002): Public diplomacy. London.

Lord, Carnes (2006): Losing hearts and minds? Public diplomacy and strategic influence in the age of terror. Westport, CT.

Maaß, Kurt-Jürgen (Hrsg.) (2005): Kultur und Außenpolitik. Handbuch für Studium und Praxis. Baden-Baden.

Melissen, Jan (2006): How has place branding developed? Opinion piece. Link [Originally published in Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, No. 1].

O’Shaughnessy, John / O’Shaughnessy, Nicholas Jackson (2000): Treating the nation as a brand: Some neglected issues. In: Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 20, No. 1, 56-64.

Pamment, James (2013): Articulating influence: Toward a research agenda for interpreting the evaluation of soft power, public diplomacy and nation brands. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 1, 50-59.

Pamment, James (2015): Media influence, ontological transformation, and social change: Conceptual overlaps between development communication and public diplomacy. In: Communication Theory, Vol. 25, No.2, 188-207.

Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard / Merkelsen, Henrik (2012): The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 5, 810-818.

Schwan, Anna (2011): Werbung statt Waffen. Wie strategische Außenkommunikation die Außenpolitik verändert. Wiesbaden.

Seib, Philip (2009): Public diplomacy and journalism: Parallels, ethical issues, and practical concerns. In: American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 52, No. 2, 772-786.

Signitzer, Benno (2008): Public relations and public diplomacy: Some conceptual explorations. In: Zerfaß, Ansgar / van Ruler, Betteke / Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy (eds.): Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations. Wiesbaden, 205-218.

Skinner, Heather / Kubacki, Krzysztof (2007): Unravelling the complex relationship between nationhood, national and cultural identity, and place branding. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 305-316.

Srugies, Alice (2013): Comparative public diplomacy research: Potentials, challenges, implications. In: Diana Ingenhoff (ed.): Internationale PR-Forschung. Konstanz, München, 229-260.

Stiehl, Tim (2011): Public Diplomacy gleich Nation Branding? Eine theoretische Abgrenzung zweier Konzepte zur Außendarstellung von Staaten. Saarbrücken [eBook].

Szondi, György (2008): Public diplomacy and nation branding: Conceptual similarities and differences. The Hague. Link

Van Dyke, Mark A. / Verčič, Dejan (2009): Public relations, public diplomacy, and strategic communication: An international model of conceptual convergence. In: Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy / Verčič, Dejan (eds.): The global public relations handbook: Theory, research, and practice. Rev. ed. New York, London, 906-928.

van Ham, Peter (2001): The rise of the brand state: The postmodern politics of image and reputation. In: Foreign Affairs, Vol. 80, No. 5, 2–6.

van Ham, Peter (2008): Place branding: The state of the art. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, No. 1, 126-149.

Wang, Jay (2006): Public diplomacy and global business. In: Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 27, No. 3, 41-49.

White, Candace / Radic, Danijela (2014): Comparative public diplomacy: Message strategies of countries in transition. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 459- 465.

Widler, Janine (2007): Nation branding: With pride against prejudice. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 144-150.

Yang, Aimei / Klyueva, Anna / Taylor, Maureen (2012): Beyond a dyadic approach to public diplomacy: Understanding relationships in a multipolar world. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 5, 652-664.

Zerrillo, Philip C. / Thomas, Gregory Metz (2007): Developing brands and emerging markets: An empirical application. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 86-99.


Nation Branding Case Studies

Europe

Anholt, Simon (2007): ‘Brand Europe’ – Where next? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 115-119.

Auer, Claudia / Srugies, Alice (2013): Public diplomacy in Germany. CPD Perspectives on Public Diplomacy, Paper 5. Link

Aveline, Julie (2006): Branding Europe? Branding, design and post-national loyalties. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, 334-340.

Avgerinos, Katherine P. (2009): Russia’s public diplomacy effort: What the Kremlin is doing and why it’s not working. In: Journal of Public and International Affairs, Vol. 20, 115-132. Link

Brünner, Thomas (2011): Public Diplomacy im Westen. Die Presseagentur Panorama DDR informiert das Ausland. Frankfurt am Main.

Claver Ruiz, María (2015): Explaining Spain’s Casas: An instrument of networked public diplomacy. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 10, No. 2, 215-224.

Davis Cross, Mai’a K. / Melissen, Jan (eds.) (2013): European public diplomacy: Soft power at work. Basingstoke, New York.

Gilmore, Fiona (2002): A country – can it be repositioned? Spain – the success story of country branding. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 281-293.

Hall, Derek (2002): Brand development, tourism and national identity: The re-imaging of former Yugoslavia. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 323-334.

Heller, Steven (2008): Iron fists: Branding the 20th-century totalitarian state. London, Berlin.

Horisberger, Marc (2002): Entstehung und Gestaltung von Nationenimages. Eine theoretische und empirische Analyse staatlicher Imagepflege im Ausland aus kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Perspektive. Diss., Univ. Freiburg (Schweiz).

Jansen, Sue Curry (2008): Designer nations: Neo-liberal nation branding – Brand Estonia. In: Social Identities, Vol. 14, No. 1, 121-142.

Kaneva, Nadia (ed.) (2012): Branding post-communist nations: Marketizing national identities in the “new” Europe. New York, London.

Kaneva, Nadia / Popescu, Delia (2014): “We are Romanian, not Roma”: Nation branding and postsocialist discourses of alterity. In: Communication, Culture and Critique, Vol. 7, No. 4, 506-523.

Kemming, Jan Dirk (2009): Nation brand management in political contexts: Public diplomacy for Turkey’s EU accession. Diss., Univ. Gießen. Link

Kemming, Jan Dirk / Sandikci, Özlem (2007): Turkey’s EU accession as a question of nation brand image. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 31-41.

Litvinsky, Marina (2011): European Union public diplomacy: The need for a new frame. Saarbrücken.

Martinović, Stjepo (2002): Branding Hrvatska – a mixed blessing that might succeed: The advantage of being unrecognisable. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 315-322.

Nation Branding Luxemburg (2015). Link

Ostrowski, Daniel (2010): Die Public Diplomacy der deutschen Auslandsvertretungen weltweit. Theorie und Praxis der deutschen Auslandsöffentlichkeitsarbeit. Wiesbaden.

Rius Ulldemolins, Joaquium / Martín Zamorano, Mariano (2015): Spain’s nation branding project Marca España and its cultural policy: The economic and political instrumentalization of a homogeneous and simplified cultural image. In: International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 21, No. 1, 20-40.

Simons, Greg (2014): Russian public diplomacy in the 21st century: Structure, means and message. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 440-449.

Sudjic, Deyan (2006): The edifice complex: How the rich and powerful shape the world. London. [Chapter 6: Inventing a nation, 155-188].

Swedish Institute (2009): Brand Sweden: The road to an updated image of Sweden abroad. Stockholm: Swedish Institute. Link

Szondi, György (2007): The role and challenges of country branding in transition countries: The Central and Eastern European experience. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 8-20.

Visconti, Luca M. / Üçok Hughes, Mine / Bagramian, Ruben (2012): Diversity appreciated? A visual longitudinal analysis of Ukraine’s nation branding campaigns. In: Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 40, 935-936 (extended abstract). Link

Zöllner, Oliver (2006): A quest for dialogue in international broadcasting: Germany’s public diplomacy targeting Arab audiences. In: Global Media and Communication, Vol. 2, No. 2, 160-182.

Zöllner, Oliver (2009): German public diplomacy: The dialogue of cultures. In: Snow, Nancy / Taylor, Philip M. (eds.): Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. New York, London, 262-269.

The Americas

Bayles, Martha (2014): Through a screen darkly: Popular culture, public diplomacy, and America’s image abroad. New Haven, CT.

Djerejian, Edward P. (2003): Changing minds, winning peace: A new strategic directive for U.S. public diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim world. Report of the advisory group on public diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim world, U.S. House of Representatives. Link

Elter, Andreas (2008): Auswärtige Kulturpolitik und Propaganda in den USA. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Heft 11, S. 32-38. Link

Fullerton, Jami et al. (2007): Attitudes towards American brands and Brand America. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 205-212.

Garbacz Rawson, Elizabeth A. (2007): Perceptions of the United States of America: Exploring the political brand of a nation. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 213-221.

Jäger, Thomas / Viehrig, Henrike (eds.) (2008): Die amerikanische Regierung gegen die Weltöffentlichkeit? Theoretische und empirische Analysen der Public Diplomacy zum Irakkrieg. Wiesbaden.

Manheim, Jarol B. (1994): Strategic public diplomacy and American foreign policy. New York.
Morrison, Matthew B. (2012): U.S. public diplomacy: Background and current issues. New York.

Niesing, Eva (2013): Latin America’s potential in nation branding: A closer look at Brazil’s, Chile’s and Colombia’s practices. Hamburg.

Servaes, Jan (2012): Soft power and public diplomacy: The new frontier for public relations and international communication between the US and China. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 5, 643-651.

Sinha Roy, Ishita (2007): Worlds apart: Nation-branding on the National Geographic Channel. In: Media, Culture and Society, Vol. 29, No. 4, 569-592.

U.S. Department of State (2000): Consolidation of USIA into the State Department: An assessment after one year. Collingdale.

Asia, Australia and Oceania

Agawa, Naoyuki (2008): Japan does soft power: Strategy and effectiveness of its public diplomacy in the United States. In: Yasushi Watanabe / David L. McConnel (eds.): Soft power superpowers: Cultural and national assets of Japan and the United States. New York, 224-241.

Berkowitz, Pere et al. (2007): Brand China: Using the 2008 Olympic Games to enhance China’s image. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 164-178.

Broinowski, Alison (2012): Soft power, smart power or public diplomacy? Australia fumbles. In: Global Asia, Vol. 7, No. 3, 41-45. Link

Byrne, Caitlin / Hall, Rebecca (2011): Australia’s international education as public diplomacy: Soft power potential. In: Discussion Papers In Diplomacy, Netherlands Institute Of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ and Antwerp University, No 121. Link

Chang, Tsan-Kuo / Lin, Fen (2014): From propaganda to public diplomacy: Assessing China’s international practice and its image, 1950–2009. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 450-458.

Chen, Ni (2012): Branding national images: The 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, 2010 Shanghai World Expo, and 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, issue 5, 731-745.

Cooper Ramo, Joshua (2007): Brand China. London. Link

D’Hooghe, Ingrid (2007): The rise of China’s public diplomacy. The Hague. Link

Finlay, Christopher J. / Xin, Xin (2010): Public diplomacy games: A comparative study of American and Japanese responses to the interplay of nationalism, ideology and Chinese soft power strategies around the 2008 Beijing Olympics. In: Sport in Society, Vol. 13, No. 5, 876-900.

Fleischer, Florian / Füser, Katharina / Isermeyer, Johanna (2014): Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten. In: Global Media Journal (German Edition), Vol. 4, No. 1. Link

Fullerton, Jami et al. (2008): Brand Borat? Americans’ reaction to a Kazakhstani place branding campaign. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4, 159-168.

Govers, Robert (2012): Brand Dubai and its competitors in the Middle East: An image and reputation analysis. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 8, 48-57.

Hahn, Oliver (2008): Arabische Öffentlichkeit und Satellitenrundfunk. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Heft 11, S. 26-31. Link

Hartig, Falk (2012): Cultural diplomacy with Chinese characteristics: The case of Confucius Institutes in Australia. In: Communication, Politics & Culture, Vol. 45, 256-276. Link

Hartig, Falk (2013): Panda Diplomacy: The cutest part of China’s public diplomacy. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 8, No. 1, 49-78.

Hartig, Falk (2016): Chinese public diplomacy: The rise of the Confucius Institutes. London, New York.

Kerrigan, Finola / Shivanandan, Jyotsna / Hede, Anne-Marie (2012): Nation branding: A critical appraisal of Incredible India. In: Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 32, No. 3, 319–327.

Koh, Buck Song (2011): Brand Singapore: How nation branding built Asia’s leading global city. Singapore.

Kluver, Randolph (2014): The sage as strategy: Nodes, networks, and the quest for geopolitical power in the Confucius Institute. In: Communication, Culture & Critique, Vol. 7, No. 2, 192-209.

Loo, Theresa / Davies, Gary (2006): Branding China: The ultimate challenge in reputation management? In: Corporate Reputation Review Vol. 9, 198-210.

Melki, Jad / Jabado, May (2016): Mediated public diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The synergistic use of terrorism, social media and branding. In: Media and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 2, 92-103. Link

McGray, Douglas (2002): Japan’s gross national cool. In: Foreign Policy, No. 130 (May/June), 44-54.

Morgan, Nigel, et al. (2002): New Zealand, 100% pure: The creation of a powerful niche destination brand. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 335-354.

Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee (2007): Branding Thailand: Correcting the negative image of sex tourism. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 21-30.

Park, Se Jung / Lim, Yon Soo (2014): Information networks and social media use in public diplomacy: A comparative analysis of South Korea and Japan. In: Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 24, No. 1, 79-98.

Sun, Wanning (2014): Mediatization with Chinese characteristics: Political legitimacy, public diplomacy and the new art of propaganda. In: Knut Lundby (ed.): Mediatization of communication. Berlin, Boston, 87-105.

Thussu, Daya Kishan (2013): Communicating India’s soft power: Buddha to Bollywood. Basingstoke, New York.

Africa

Jacob, Udo (2016): Target Gutahuka: The UN’s strategic information intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In: Media and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 2, 104-119. Link

Fiedler, Anke / Frère, Marie-Soleil (2016): “Radio France Internationale” and “Deutsche Welle” in Francophone Africa: International broadcasters in a time of change. In: Communication, Culture and Critique, Vol. 9, No. 1, 68-85.

Murai, Yasuko (2011): ‘Alive with Possibility’: Brand South Africa and the discursive construction of South African national identity. MSc dissertation, London School of Economics and Political Science. Link


Helpful Internet Resources

» Journal: ‘Place Branding and Public Diplomacy”
» The Place Brand Observer: Nation Branding section
» The Foreign Policy Centre (UK)
» IdentityLab (Germany)
» Institute for Cultural Diplomacy (Germany)
» Anholt-GfK Roper’s Nation Brands Index
» FutureBrand’s Country Brand Index
» Nation-Branding.info: “Everything about Nation Branding and Country Brands”
» Research Center Nation Branding der Hochschule RheinMain, Wiesbaden

This nation branding reading list was republished with permission. For the original version, click here.


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