"Smart" has become a fashionable brand attribute for cities and regions, eager to position themselves as innovative and modern. But what does the term actually mean? And does being a "smart" city or region really increase its competitive advantage? What are the links between "smart cities" and place branding? We asked our panel of place brand experts. Below a summary of answers.
Smart city: what does it mean?
Innovative use of technology is the most common association with the "smart city" term. It is a vision for urban progress and stands for the idea that technology, if used correctly, can improve a city - almost by itself.
Such technology-enabled, "smart" cities can be attractive, especially for businesses and global talent. But they can also repel others, such as travellers seeking warm, friendly experiences with local communities. Using "smart city" as part of a brand identity has therefore clear positives and negatives - depending on the target audience (Christopher Hire | 2thinknow).
Despite the common affiliation of the term with technology, our panel points out that the meaning of "smart cities" is very much open to interpretation - and not always regarded positively. Some reject it as mere marketing hype, "an empty label hiding a complete lack of clear ideas on what being smart means in concrete for a community" (Cecilia Pasquinelli).
Robert Govers even sees a risk of "smart-washing", when cities use such brand values to be fashionable (like "sustainable city"), rather than to focus on what really makes them unique.
Likewise, Efe Sevin warns that "creating smart cities for the sake of adapting most recent technologies will only give places a short-term media interest."
It's therefore clear that focus on technology alone falls short of smart city potential. A perhaps more useful interpretation of smartness (Hila Oren):
A smart city is one which listens to its residents, is attuned to their needs and strives to meet them... [It] is able to galvanize its residents to collaborate with the city to improve their quality of life."
As such, "smart" is much more than a place brand positioning element. It is a strategic development decision (Hjörtur Smárason | Scope Communications) and a commitment to listen to the local community.
A "smart" city goes beyond commercial purposes in its use of technologies - it uses such tools as effective and efficient as possible (Juan Carlos Belloso) to improve the lives of residents and visitors (Jonathan McClory).
Natasha Grand observes that new cities in particular like to tout their "smart city" credentials in order to attract talent.
Overall, our panel coincides in that use of new technologies alone does not make a city "smart". Rather, active listening to and involvement of residents is the key - just like place branding campaigns are doomed to fail without the buy-in of the local community.
"Smart city" as opportunity for place branding - and vice versa
[A place brand] should be the spokesperson for the project, able to clearly communicate the tangible and distinct benefits of the ‘smart’ factor to your target audience and create a vision for the future that engages stakeholders and gets them to understand its value. This clear, distinct vision should be linked to the specific location and local assets, to ensure it is not generic. Achieve this and not only will it provide a shared vision that all parties involved can rally around, but it will also substantially speed up the process of securing investment as organisations will immediately understand the value, community and financial benefit of the project. In this context, the place brand can be both a statement of belief, as well as a call to action.
Similarly, Cecilia Pasquinelli points out that "the branding effort may help the local community to visualise the 'unique' smart city to be envisioned, thus avoiding blind and non-critical adoption of the global script."
And, if done well, being smart can enhance a city brand and narrative: "when coupled with tangible initiatives, it’s the kind of commitment that can create global 'buzz' – the kind of profile and momentum that comes from inventive leadership and a reputation for 'making things happen.'" (Jeannette Hanna | Trajectory).
The concept of a smart in the process of brand building creates a potentially attractive message for many groups, and above all for residents, which take advantage of the smart city solutions on a daily basis. Therefore, being "smart" offers potentially great opportunities from the point of view of brand building, but only if it involves many areas of life, therefore delivering a consistent message. Cities, which comprehensively use "smart city" tools, including communicating with different groups of stakeholders, have the biggest chances to achieve a marketing advantage based on the smart city concept.
Anyone involved with long-term, community-led city branding initiatives knows how difficult those can become, not least because of the many stakeholders involved. "Cautiously optimistic" probably describes the overall feeling of our expert panel towards "smart city" best.
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